Operations of the Internet

The Internet is a network of networks. The term Internet came from interconnection of computer networks and enables people across the globe to be connected. Anytime two devices are connected, a network has been created. Protocols determine how information is transferred across the Internet. During these transfers, cybersecurity protects our data using encryption.

Introduction to the Internet | The Internet: Network | Cybersecurity | Cloud Computing |Review

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Discussion: Net Neutrality Discussion

Directions: The Federal Communications Commission voted in December 2017 to end net neutrality. The FCC voted to make the open Internet and the "network neutrality" principles that sustain it a thing of the past. Should telecommunications companies (such as Comcast and AT&T) be allowed to provide faster Internet to companies and individuals if they are willing to pay more money for the service? What harmful effects do you think that would have on innovation, economic growth and freedom of expression in America? Post your thoughts in the form of pros and cons to the discussion board in itsLearning, and respond to at least two classmates to continue the discussion.

The Internet: Network

A computer network is a group of two or more computers that are linked together. A network links computers together so that users can share hardware, software and data, as well as electronically communicate with each other.

A local area network (LAN) is a network of computers located in a single location, like a home, school, or office building. The computers can share connection with other LANS and with the Internet. LANs are commonly used for intraoffice communication and home networks. They are extended over several yards or several miles but are generally confined to a single building or a group of buildings such as a corporate office.

wi-fiWi-Fi (wireless fidelity) is a common standard technology for guiding home wireless networks and other LANs. Many businesses will use Wi-Fi technology to allow the public an access point to a wireless network. Many restaurants and fast food places, like McDonald's, will advertise wireless hotspots as a way of attracting customers. Bluetooth allows handhelds, cellphones, and other peripherals to communicate over short ranges and uses wireless technology to do so.

A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a network over a large area like a city, a country, or multiple countries. WANS connect multiple LANs together. Generally, WANS utilizes different and much more expensive networking equipment than LANs. In addition to geographic distance, the main difference between LANs and WANs is data transmission cost. In a LAN, the organization owns all components. In a WAN, an organization typically leases some of the necessary components needed to transmit data, such as high-speed telephone lines or wireless transmissions via satellites and microwave antennas.

The Internet is the global public network of independent and autonomous networks that are governed by the Internet Protocol Suite. It is the largest and most well-known wide area network on the world. It is technically a network of networks since it is comprised of thousands of networks that can all access each other via the main backbone infrastructure of the Internet.

Open System Interconnection (OSI) model

Each type of network will have its protocols (rules) that determine how the computers communicate. Protocols are necessary so that different equipment made by different companies can communicate with each other (like agreeing to both speak Spanish). Regardless of the type of network, before the packets of information can travel across the network, a common protocol must be established for sending and receiving the data packets.

Although not an operational protocol, the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is a seven layer model used to visualize the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology. It was conceived in the 1970's when computer networking was taking off, and two separate models were merged in 1983 to create the current version. The OSI model is a useful tool for development and problem solving. The OSI model helps you to start figuring out where a network problem may reside and therefore, help you to solve the problem. According to Vikram Kumar of Interesting World, "The purpose of the OSI reference model is to guide vendors and developers so the digital communication products and software programs they create will interoperate, and to facilitate clear comparisons among communications tools."

Each of the seven layers goes up in increments of one as it gets closer to the human user. Each layer in the model serves both the layer above it and below it. The OSI model belongs to the International Organization for Standards (ISO) and is maintained by the identification ISO/IEC 7498-1.

OSI modelOSI Layers

Assignment: OSI Model Poster

Directions: Read more about The OSI model explained in simple terms. Analyze the seven layers that comprise the OSI Model. Examine The 7 Layered OSI Burger and then create your own OSI Model Poster. Your poster must include a title, graphic with layers (cannot use a burger) and identification of each layer. The poster must be submitted as a .pdf. A separate paper should explain how each layer operates and include a reference for all sources in MLA format including access date if the source is online. The image for the poster must be cited (a link is not sufficient and Google Images is not a source).

Network Protocols

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anonymous browsing

Assignment: TCP/IP Internet Protocols Assignment

Directions: Research the TCP/IP Internet Protocol model. Design a chart that will show the protocols used at that layer and a description of the function of that layer as it relates to data traveling through the Internet. Create a second chart that explains what each of the protocol acronyms stand for and its function in the TCP/IP Internet Protocol model. Using the information you collected, create a diagram that shows how data travels through the layers of the Internet using the TCP/IP protocols. Include what happens at each step with the packet. Include images and short text to explain the process.

Download the full assignment (including templates for the two charts) from itsLearning.

Assignment: Compare and Contrast Internet Connection Types Assignment

Companies like Google and Apple are working to bring Internet connections to all parts of the world and through some out of the box techniques. For example, one technique that Google is utilizing is through balloons and data to bring Internet to remote parts of the world.

Directions: Compare and Contrast the different Internet connection types. For each type, describe the connection, list at least two advantages and at least two disadvantages. Include a title and at least one picture. Cite at least two sources of information using MLA format. Picture must also include a citation.

Internet connection types include:

Download the full assignment from itsLearning.

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is the emerging buzz word in information technology or at least it was just a few years ago. Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage and computing power, without direct active management by the user. The term is generally used to describe data centers available to many users over the Internet. It is also called dynamic computing because it provides resources when required (dynamically). Internet services are available in a distributed manner. To be able to use these services feasibly is a concern, because when resources become idle, they are costly and increase the budget of an organization. The solution to this problem is cloud computing. Using cloud computing, an organization can run their applications on a shared data center.

To use an application that is run on the cloud, all that needs to be done is to login with a username and password, customize it, and start using it. That's the power of cloud computing.

Cloud computing can be used for business applications, which is called enterprise cloud computing. Businesses run all kinds of applications on the cloud, including custom built applications. The cloud is economical since there is not a need to pay for people, products, and facilities to run it. They are also more scalable, reliable and secure. This is because cloud computing is based on an architecture called multi tenancy. With multi tenancy everyone shares one be purchased but it can be customized to individual users’ specific needs. Applications do not need to be purchased, but are rolled up into a monthly subscription. Only services that are used are paid for.

Many organizations like Amazon, Google, and Microsoft have started implementing cloud computing using a hybrid approach. In cloud computing, various service providers participate to provide services like storage, network, CPU, hardware and software etc. If a user doesn’t have storage on a personal computer, storage on the cloud can be utilized. The same type of service is provided by Flickr.com, which can be used to upload images on Flickr’s server. The service can be used on a desktop, but the Internet is required when images are to be processed on the desktop. Google Apps is used to create documents online. These types of services are available on the cloud. Some sites like result sites are busy at specific times. They consume resources and may fail because of increasing load handled by limited computing power. These services can be provided through clouds. If they are free, then their resources could be used somewhere else. But when they are busy, they can use the resources of the cloud to avoid a failure situation. Cloud computing is not limited to specific data centers because it can use many data centers distributed in various geographical locations.


Humans are creative. As you have experienced in previous units, creativity comes from individuals and from individuals working in collaboration with others. Tools of the internet allow us to create new artifacts that educate and enhance our lives. However, some individuals or groups of individuals use their creativity to hinder others. Georgia Virtual School

The need for Cyber Security professionals has risen due to increases in security breaches because of vulnerabilities in a system. Vulnerabilities can be caused by hardware, software, network or company personnel.

Common Security Issues for Users

Security of your information and your computer system is important. Users are faced with security issues on a daily basis from viruses, phishing attempts, and worms to just name a few. The general name for programs that try to negatively affect your computer is known as malware. Software has bugs and unethical people can take advantage of those bugs for bad purposes such as causing your computer to crash, or capturing every keystroke on your computer. Software developers strive to prevent security bugs and to fix them as soon as possible. However, not every developer is diligent about software updates and bug fixes and not every computer user installs software updates promptly.

Phishing is a common attack strategy that uses your email. The attacker sends you an email appearing to be from an official organization such as your school or bank. The email might tell you that your account has been jeopardized and that the sender of the email needs your username and password to authenticate your account. They are actually trying to trick you into providing secure information to you.

Phishing emails are very annoying, and you should avoid opening them and never reply to them. Very often the sender of spam emails does not know that the email address is a real person until you reply. Then the game begins because now there is a fish (you) on the hook. 91% of cyberattacks start with a phishing email.

Assignment: Question for Thought 6.1

Directions: Have you ever been taken in by a hoax? Were you angry or just annoyed? Have you or anyone you know been the victim of a scam artist? Have you ever received an email like the one shown in the itsLearning textbox? Did you respond? What would have happened if you did respond and give the sender the information that they were asking for? Compile your answers into a well-written paragraph and submit your paragraph directly to the itsLearning textbox.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack

A Denial of Service (DoS) attack consists of sending a lot of requests to a server at the same time. This can overload the server's network bandwidth and while it does not destroy any data or collect any passwords, it can cause a temporary inability to reach the targeted server thus denying other users access to that service.

A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack uses viruses to take control of thousands of computers around the world. This network of infected computers is often referred to an a botnet. The attacker launches a DoS attack using all the infected computers, referred to as zombie computers at the same time. DDoS make it harder to determine who is responsible for the attack because it appears to be coming from many different innocent people.

Cybersecurity, Crime, Encryption, & Public Keys

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Cybersecurity, also referred to as information technology security, focuses on protecting computers, networks, programs and data from unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction.

Cyber security is important because governments, military, corporations, financial institutions, hospitals and other businesses collect, process and store a great deal of confidential information on computers and transmit that data across networks to other computers. With the growing volume and sophistication of cyber-attacks, ongoing attention is required to protect sensitive business and personal information, as well as safeguard national security.

During a Senate hearing back in March 2013, the nation's top intelligence officials warned that cyber-attacks and digital spying are the top threat to national security, eclipsing terrorism. Cyber security and IT job markets are hot—cyber security jobs are expected to grow 12 times faster than the overall job market according to the Chief Information Officer Journal.

Cybercrime is the use of computers and networks to perform illegal activities such as spreading computer viruses, online bullying, performing unauthorized electronic fund transfers etc. Most cybercrimes are committed through the Internet. Some cybercrimes can also be carried out using mobile phones via SMS and online chatting applications. One way that you can protect your data is using public key encryption.

Internet security (https and ssl) is supported by both symmetric and public key cryptography. The current symmetric standard is the Advanced Encryption Standard. Certificate Authorities (CAs) issue digital certificates that validate the ownership of encryption keys and are based on a trust model.

Mia Epner, who works on security for a US national intelligence agency, explains how cryptography allows for the secure transfer of data online along with 256-bit encryption, public and private keys, SSL and TLS and HTTPS. In the second video, Google Security Princess Parisa Tabriz and Jenny Martin from Symantec introduce the most common types of cybercrime including viruses, malware, DDoS attacks and phishing scams.


Assignment: Article Analysis: The CIA Secret to Cybersecurity That No One Seems to Get

Directions: Read The CIA Secret to Cybersecurity That No One Seems to Get by Mike Gault in Wired magazine and then answer the review questions in itsLearning.

Assignment: Cybersecurity and Internet Safety Project

Directions: Cyber intrusions and attacks have occurred recently that have exposed sensitive personal and business information, disrupted critical operations, and imposed high costs on the economy. Create an infographic and paper that provides information on security vulnerabilities and one current cybersecurity breach involving the public. Download the full assignment from itsLearning.


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If you are having problems viewing this page, opening videos, or accessing the URLs, the direct links are posted below. All assignments are submitted in itsLearning. If you have having problems, contact Mrs. Rush through the itsLearning email client.

John Barret's Internet of Things Ted Talk: https://www.youtube.com/embed/QaTIt1C5R-M

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing

IBM cloud computing http://www.ibm.com/cloud-computing/us/en/

Salesforce http://www.salesforce.com/cloudcomputing/

How Stuff Works http://computer.howstuffworks.com/cloud-computing/cloud-computing.htm

Review: https://www.examtime.com/p/1077208-State-of-the-Web-flash_card_decks

Phishing Graphic: https://www.wpi.edu/news/announcements/dont-get-hooked-phishing-rise

Transcript: http://mrsrush.net/digitaldesign/state/index.pdf


Basic parts of a URL: http://www.smccd.edu/accounts/csmlibrary/tutorials/url.html

The CIA Secret to Cybersecurity That No One Seems to Get: http://www.wired.com/2015/12/the-cia-secret-to-cybersecurity-that-no-one-seems-to-get/

The OSI Model explained in Simple Terms: https://www.techcress.com/the-osi-model-explained-in-simple-terms/

Infographic: GO-Gulf.com

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