Operations of the Internet

Introduction to the Internet | The Internet: Network | Cybersecurity | Cloud Computing |Review

Digital devices and the Internet have had a profound impact on society. The principles of systems and networks that helped enable the Internet are also critical in the implementation of computational solutions. Computer networks support communication and collaboration. Students in this course will gain insight into how systems and networks operate, to the principles that facilitate their design, and will analyze the effects of systems and networks on people and society.

Introduction to the Internet

An Internet MinuteWhat is the Internet, how is it built, and how does it work? The development of the Internet can be traced to the space race between the United States and Soviet Union during the 1960's. After the Soviet Union launched the satellite Sputnik into Earth's orbit in 1959, the United States created the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to bolster technological innovation.

The Internet is a complex system with many abstractions. It operates as an "Open Access" system using common protocols. The TCP/IP Internet Protocol Suite is the main communication protocol system for transporting data on the Internet. It is a four-layer system composed of the Application layer, Transport layer, Internet layer, and Network layer. Each layer of the TCP/IP model provides a specific function and purpose. The "open access" system provides equal access to everyone. As more and more personal information is stored on the Internet, the need to secure the data has risen. Internet security (https and ssl) is supported by both symmetric and public key cryptography. The current symmetric standard is the Advanced Encryption Standard. Certificate Authorities (CAs) issue digital certificates that validate the ownership of encryption keys and are based on a trust model. The need for Cyber Security professionals has risen due to the increase in security breaches due to vulnerabilities in a system. Vulnerabilities can be caused by hardware, software, network or company personnel.

The Wikipedia definition of Internet is, a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link several billion devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), the infrastructure to support email, and peer-to-peer networks for file sharing and telephony.

The Internet continues to grow as more hosts and users are added to the network. A host is a computer connected to the Internet. The Internet has grown exponentially since its inception in 1984. "In a recent Infographic, Intel predicts that by 2017, the number of devices connected to the internet will climb to three times the number of people on earth (Carestruck Current 2016)." Today, basically, the entire world is connected.

The open Internet model provides net neutrality which means people can access and place lawful content on the Internet and everyone receives the same speed of delivery from the telecommunications carriers. However, there has been discussion on ISPs like AT&T, Comcast and Verizon being allowed to offer fast lanes to certain companies that would possibly slow down the individual user. Read more about the 2015 rulings in Net Neutrality http://www.cnbc.com/2015/02/26/what-the-net-neutrality-battle-is-really-about.html

Discussion: Net Neutrality Discussion

Directions: Should telecommunications companies be allowed to provide faster delivery to companies and individuals if they pay more money for the service? What harmful effects do you think that would have on net neutrality, innovation, economic growth and freedom of expression in America? Post your thoughts in the form of pros and cons to the discussion board in itsLearning, and respond to at least two classmates to continue the discussion.

The Internet: Network

A computer network is a group of two or more computers that are linked together. Each type of network will have its protocols (rules) that determine how the computers communicate. A computer network links computers together so that users can share hardware, software and data, as well as electronically communicate with each other. A local area network (LAN) is a network of computers located in a single location, like a home, school, or office building. The computers can share connection with other LANS and with the Internet. LANs are commonly used for intraoffice communication and home networks. They are extended over several yards or several miles, but are generally confined to a single building or a group of buildings such as a corporate office.

wi-fiWi-Fi (wireless fidelity) is a common standard technology for guiding home wireless networks and other LANs. Many businesses will use Wi-Fi technology to allow the public an access point to a wireless network. Many restaurants and fast food places, like McDonald's, will advertise wireless hotspots as a way of attracting customers. Bluetooth allows handhelds, cellphones, and other peripherals to communicate over short ranges and uses wireless technology to do so.

A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a network over a large area like a city, a country, or multiple countries. WANS connect multiple LANs together. Generally, WANS utilizes different and much more expensive networking equipment than LANs. In addition to geographic distance, the main difference between LANs and WANs is data transmission cost. In a LAN, the organization owns all components. In a WAN, an organization typically leases some of the necessary components needed to transmit data, such as high-speed telephone lines or wireless transmissions via satellites and microwave antennas.

The Internet (capital ‘I’) is the global public network of independent and autonomous networks that are governed by the Internet Protocol Suite. It is the largest and most well-known wide area network on the world. It is technically a network of networks since it is comprised of thousands of networks that can all access each other via the main backbone infrastructure of the Internet.

internet map

Open System Interconnection (OSI) model

The Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is a seven layer model used to visualize the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology. It was conceived in the 1970's when computer networking was taking off, and two separate models were merged in 1983 to create the current version. The OSI model is a useful tool for development and problem solving. The OSI model helps you to start figuring out where the problem may reside and therefore, help you to solve the problem. According to Vikram Kumar of Interesting World, "The purpose of the OSI reference model is to guide vendors and developers so the digital communication products and software programs they create will interoperate, and to facilitate clear comparisons among communications tools."

Each of the seven layers goes up in increments of one as it gets closer to the human user. Each layer in the model serves both the layer above it and below it. The OSI model belongs to the International Organization for Standards (ISO) and is maintained by the identification ISO/IEC 7498-1.

OSI modelOSI Layers

Assignment: OSI Model Poster

Directions: Read more about The OSI model explained in simple terms. Analyze the seven layers that comprise the OSI Model. Examine The 7 Layered OSI Burger and then create your own OSI Model Poster. Your poster must include a title, graphic with layers, identification of each layer, and an explanation of each layer.

Network Protocols

A communication protocol is a system of rules that govern the behavior of some system. All devices connected on a network use the same communications protocol.

Some examples of communications protocols include:

An internet is a collection of disparate networks that are connected together via gateways or routers. A router is a device that transmits data between two different networks. Think of the Internet as the collection of different language communities around the globe, with the translators from one language to another being comparable to Internet routers.

Routers: Transmits data between different networks. A home router connects local devices to a cable modem. A cable modem or DSL modem connects your home to your Internet Service Provider (ISP). An enterprise-level router connects the ISP to the core Internet backbone routers.

In 1978, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) developed the foundational set of protocols required for using the Internet. These protocols are known as the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet protocol Suite, or TCP/IP. The TCP/IP protocol is used to communicate over the Internet. Ethernet is a LAN protocol, which might be used in addition to TCP/IP in some networks, but it is not needed to communicate over the Internet.

Every device or machine that is connected to the Internet has a unique Internet protocol (IP) address. An IP address consists of seven digits broken up into four groups (called octets) separated by decimal points, for example 426.6.35.4.

IP addresses are not the only way to navigate the Internet. In fact, end users rarely locate resources through the explicit use of IP addresses. Consider your school's website. Do you know your school's webserver IP address? How do you locate the page? The Domain Name System enables network users to locate a device semantically through a layer of abstraction.

The right to use a domain name is delegated by domain name registrars which are accredited by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) or other organizations such as OpenNIC, that are charged with overseeing the name and number systems of the Internet. In addition to ICANN, each top-level domain (TLD) is maintained and serviced technically by an administrative organization, operating a registry. A registry is responsible for operating the database of names within its authoritative zone, although the term is most often used for TLDs. A registrant is a person or organization who asked for domain registration. The registry receives registration information from each domain name registrar, which is authorized (accredited) to assign names in the corresponding zone and publishes the information using the WHOIS protocol. (Wikipedia).

URLs (Universal Resource Locator) are used to locate documents (or other types of files such as an image or sound file) anywhere on the Internet. The URL contains the address of the LAN or WAN and the specific computer from which the file is to be retrieved, but specifies the file’s address, not just the computer’s address.

The basic parts of a URL often provide "clues" to where a web page originates and who might be responsible for the information at that page or site. URLs have three basic parts:

The protocol is shown at the beginning of the URL before the double slash (//); the server name is between the double slash (//) and the first single slash (/); and the resource id is everything after the first single slash (/).

Let's take a look at the URL for this page: http://www.mrsrush.net/apcsp/internet/index.html

Can you identify:

The protocol identifies the method (set of rules) by which the resource is transmitted. All Web pages use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Thus, all web URL's (including my website) begin with http://. We can enter a web address in the browser without typing the protocol because the browser can be programmed to add it.

The server name identifies the computer on which the resource is found. (Computers that store and "serve up" web pages are called remote servers.) This part of the URL commonly identifies which company, agency or organization may be either directly responsible for the information, or is simply providing the computer space where the information is stored. Web server names often begin with the letters www, but not always. Why do you think that not all servers use the www? Remember that the World Wide Web sits on top of the Internet and not everything that is on the Internet is also a part of the World Wide Web. What is the server for Mrs. Rush's website?

The server name always ends with a dot and a two- or three-letter extension called the domain name. The domain is important because it usually identifies the type of organization that created or sponsored the resource. Sometimes it indicates the country where the server is located. The most common domain names are:

anonymous browsing

The resource ID is the name of the file for the page and any directories or subdirectories under which it is stored on the specified computer. The part of the resource ID after the last slash (/) is the file name for the specific page or other resource. The file name ends with a three or four letter designation that specifies the file type.

Assignment: TCP/IP Internet Protocols Assignment

Directions: Research the TCP/IP Internet Protocol model. Design a chart that will show the protocols used at that layer and a description of the function of that layer as it relates to data traveling through the Internet. Create a second chart that explains what each of the protocol acronyms stand for and its function in the TCP/IP Internet Protocol model. Using the information you collected, create a diagram that shows how data travels through the layers of the Internet using the TCP/IP protocols. Include what happens at each step with the packet. Include images and short text to explain the process.

Download the full assignment (including templates for the two charts) from itsLearning.

Assignment: Compare and Contrast Internet Connection Types Assignment

Directions: Compare and Contrast the different Internet connection types. For each type, describe the connection, list at least two advantages and at least two disadvantages. Include a title and at least one picture. Site at least two sources of information.

Internet connection types include:

Companies like Google and Apple are working to bring Internet connections to all parts of the world and through some out of the box techniques. For example, one technique that Google is utilizing is through balloons and data to bring Internet to remote parts of the world.

Download the full assignment from itsLearning.

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is the emerging buzz word in information technology. It consists of a virtual pool of resources such as storage, CPU, networks and memory to fulfill users’ resource requirements and provides on demand (pay per use) hardware and software without barriers. It is also called dynamic computing because it provides resources when required (dynamically). Internet services are available in a distributed manner. To be able to use these services feasibly is a concern, because when resources become idle, they are costly and increase the budget of an organization. The solution to this problem is cloud computing. Using cloud computing, an organization can run their applications on a shared data center. Start-up is quick and costs are reduced because there is no need for:

To use an application that is run on the cloud, all that needs to be done is to login with a username and password, customize it, and start using it. That’s the power of cloud computing.

Cloud computing can be used for business applications, which is called enterprise cloud computing. Businesses run all kinds of applications on the cloud, including custom built applications. The cloud is economical since there is not a need to pay for people, products, and facilities to run it. They are also more scalable, reliable and secure. This is because cloud computing is based on an architecture called multi tenancy. With multi tenancy everyone shares one application, but it can be customized to individual users’ specific needs. Applications do not need to be purchased, but are rolled up into a monthly subscription. Only services that are used are paid for.

Many organizations like Amazon, Google, and Microsoft have started implementing cloud computing using a hybrid approach. In cloud computing, various service providers participate to provide services like storage, network, CPU, hardware and software etc. If a user doesn’t have storage on a personal computer, storage on the cloud can be utilized. The same type of service is provided by Flickr.com, which can be used to upload images on Flickr’s server. The service can be used on a desktop, but the Internet is required when images are to be processed on the desktop. Google Apps is used to create documents online. These types of services are available on the cloud. Some sites like result sites are busy at specific times. They consume resources and may fail because of increasing load handled by limited computing power. These services can be provided through clouds. If they are free, then their resources could be used somewhere else. But when they are busy, they can use the resources of the cloud to avoid a failure situation. Cloud computing is not limited to specific data centers because it can use many data centers distributed in various geographical locations.

Advantages of Cloud Computing include:

However, Cloud Computing does come with some disadvantages as well:


Humans are creative. As you have experienced in prior modules, creativity comes from individuals and from individuals working in collaboration with others. Tools of the internet allow us to create new artifacts that educate and enhance our lives. However, some individuals or groups of individuals use their creativity to hinder others. Georgia Virtual School

Common Security Issues for Users

Security of your information and your computer system is important. Users are faced with security issues on a daily basis from virus, phishing attempt, and worms to just name a few. Software has bugs and evil people can take advantage of those bugs for bad purposes such as causing your computer to crash, or capturing every keystroke on your computer. Software developers strive to prevent security bugs and to fix them. However, not every developer is diligent about software updates and bug fixes and not every computer user installs software updates promptly. The general name for programs that try to negatively affect your computer is known as malware.

Phishing is another common attack strategy that uses your email. The attacker sends you an email appearing to be from an official organization such as your school or bank. The email might tell you that your account has been jeopardized and that the sender of the email needs your log in id and password to authenticate your account. They are actually trying to trick you into providing secure information to you.

Assignment: Question for Thought 1

Directions: Have you ever been taken in by a hoax? Were you angry or just annoyed? Have you or anyone you know been the victim of a scam artist? Have you ever received an email similar to the one shown in the textbook? Did you respond? What would have happened if you did respond and give the sender the information that they were asking for? Compile your answers into a well-written paragraph and submit your paragraph directly to the itsLearning textbox.

Assignment: Cybercrime Quiz: Assess Your Risk

Directions: Computers and the Internet offer great benefits to society. However, they also present opportunities for criminal activities such as fraud and identity theft. As an Internet user, it is important that you have a clear picture of what cybercrime actually is so that you can take steps to reduce your risk.

Take the Cybercrime Quiz and assess your risk of vulnerability at https://us.norton.com/cybercrime-quiz/promo. Post a screenshot of your quiz results to the Cybercrime Quiz itsLearning assignment and include a short reflection on the results.

Now its time to have some fun while still learning to protect yourself and be safe on the Internet. See how safe you can be by playing "FBI Cyber Surf Islands" and getting your name on the leaderboard.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack

A Denial of Service (DoS) attack consists of sending a lot of requests to a server at the same time. This can overload the server's network bandwidth and while it does not destroy any data or collect any passwords, it can cause a temporary inability to reach the targeted server thus denying other users access to that service.

A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack uses viruses to take control of thousands of computers around the world. This network of infected computers is often referred to an a botnet. The attacker launches a DoS attack using all of the infected computers, referred to as zombie computers at the same time. DDoS make it harder to determine who is responsible for the attack because it appears to be coming from many different innocent people.

Cybersecurity, Crime, Encryption, & Public Keys

Mia Epner, who works on security for a US national intelligence agency, explains how cryptography allows for the secure transfer of data online along with 256-bit encryption, public and private keys, SSL and TLS and HTTPS. In the second video, Google Security Princess Parisa Tabriz and Jenny Martin from Symantec introduce the most common types of cybercrime including viruses, malware, DDoS attacks and phishing scams.


girl at computer Cybersecurity, also referred to as information technology security, focuses on protecting computers, networks, programs and data from unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction.

Cyber security is important because governments, military, corporations, financial institutions, hospitals and other businesses collect, process and store a great deal of confidential information on computers and transmit that data across networks to other computers. With the growing volume and sophistication of cyber-attacks, ongoing attention is required to protect sensitive business and personal information, as well as safeguard national security.

During a Senate hearing back in March 2013, the nation's top intelligence officials warned that cyber-attacks and digital spying are the top threat to national security, eclipsing terrorism. Cyber security and IT job markets are hot—cyber security jobs are expected to grow 12 times faster than the overall job market according to the Chief Information Officer Journal.

Cybercrime is the use of computers and networks to perform illegal activities such as spreading computer viruses, online bullying, performing unauthorized electronic fund transfers etc. Most cybercrimes are committed through the Internet. Some cybercrimes can also be carried out using mobile phones via SMS and online chatting applications. One way that you can protect your data is through the use of publickey encryption.

Assignment: Article Analysis: The CIA Secret to Cybersecurity That No One Seems to Get

Directions: Read The CIA Secret to Cybersecurity That No One Seems to Get by Mike Gault in Wired magazine and then answer the review questions in itsLearning.

Assignment: Cybersecurity and Internet Safety Project

Directions: Cyber intrusions and attacks have occurred recently that have exposed sensitive personal and business information, disrupted critical operations, and imposed high costs on the economy. Create a presentation that provides information on security vulnerabilities and one current cybersecurity breach involving the public. Download the full assignment from itsLearning.

Assignment: NSA Day of Cyber

Directions: The NSA Day of Cyber is an online, interactive education tool. Its purpose is to, enhance awareness about cyber related career-fields, and inspire the next generation of cyber professionals. The tool allows participants to experience a day-in-the-life of an NSA cyber professional; a "virtual career field trip" in some of our hardest-to-recruit STEM work roles. It also gives you the opportunity to create a "cyber resume" that compares your interests and education to that of NSA cyber professionals and identifies educational areas that you can pursue to further your goals in becoming a cyber-professional. In October 2017, the NSA Day of Cyber was launched and more than 2.6 million students at over 450 middle schools, high schools and college registered for the cyber experience.


Flash Card Deck created by Shannon Anderson-Rush with GoConqr


If you are having problems viewing this page, opening videos, or accessing the URLs, the direct links are posted below. All assignments are submitted in itsLearning. If you have having problems, contact Mrs. Rush through the itsLearning email client.

John Barret's Internet of Things Ted Talk: https://www.youtube.com/embed/QaTIt1C5R-M

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing

IBM cloud computing http://www.ibm.com/cloud-computing/us/en/

Salesforce http://www.salesforce.com/cloudcomputing/

How Stuff Works http://computer.howstuffworks.com/cloud-computing/cloud-computing.htm

Review: https://www.examtime.com/p/1077208-State-of-the-Web-flash_card_decks

Transcript: http://mrsrush.net/digitaldesign/state/index.pdf


Basic parts of a URL: http://www.smccd.edu/accounts/csmlibrary/tutorials/url.html

The CIA Secret to Cybersecurity That No One Seems to Get: http://www.wired.com/2015/12/the-cia-secret-to-cybersecurity-that-no-one-seems-to-get/

The OSI Model explained in Simple Terms: https://www.techcress.com/the-osi-model-explained-in-simple-terms/

Transcript of this lesson